Lesson 7

Japanese Verb Conjugation (Ichidan + Irregular)

Ichidan Verbs - ไธ€ๆฎตๅ‹•่ฉž

The second group of Japanese verbs are called Ichidan (ไธ€ๆฎต) verbs.

It is usually an Ichidan verb if it ends with the sound "iru" or "eru". Some well used Japanese verbs which appear to be Ichidan but are really Godan are listed below. Ichidan verbs also follow a simple conjugation pattern that is somewhat similar to that of the Godan verbs.

Below is a verb conjugation chart for Japanese Ichidan verbs:

ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)English Meaning
้ฃŸในใ‚‹ใŸในใ‚‹taberu (to eat)
้ฃŸในใŸในtabeBase 1
้ฃŸในใŸในtabeBase 2
้ฃŸในใ‚‹ใŸในใ‚‹taberuBase 3
้ฃŸในใ‚ŒใŸในใ‚ŒtabereBase 4
้ฃŸในใ‚ˆใ†ใŸในใ‚ˆใ†tabeyouBase 5
้ฃŸในใฆใŸในใฆtabeteBase "te"
้ฃŸในใŸใŸในใŸtabetaBase "ta"

Base 1 and Base 2: As you can see, Base 1 and 2 are the same. Just like with the Godan verbs, a negative can be made by adding -nai (ex. tabenai - I will not eat.) and this base, or root form, is also used for the formal form of the verb.

Base 3: Base 3 is the same as with Godan verbs.

Base 4: Base 4, however, can not be used by itself like with Godan verbs. It is only used for "if verb" by adding -ba. (ex. tabereba - If I eat it...) It is not the low command form for Ichidan verbs. The low command form for Ichidan verbs is Base 1 + ใ‚ (ro).

Base 5: Base 5 is the same as with Godan verbs.

Base "te" and Base "ta": The Base "te" and "ta" forms for Ichidan verbs are a lot easier than with Godan verbs. Simply take off the "ru" and add a "te" for Base "te" and a "ta" for Base "ta". These have the same functions as with Godan verbs.

Here are some Ichidan verbs. Try conjugating them on a piece of paper using what you have just learned.

See the tables below for conjugations.

ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)English Meaning
ใ„ใ‚‹ใ„ใ‚‹iruto exist (animate), to be somewhere
่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ใฟใ‚‹miruto see
ๅฏใ‚‹ใญใ‚‹neruto sleep
็€ใ‚‹ใใ‚‹kiruto wear, put on
ๅ‡บๆฅใ‚‹ใงใใ‚‹dekirucan do
่ฆšใˆใ‚‹ใŠใผใˆใ‚‹oboeruto remember

Irregular Verbs

The last type of verbs are the Irregular verbs but there are only 2 of them in the entire language so just memorize their charts below. The first one is suru (to do something). Many nouns can be used as a verb simply by putting "suru" right after them. It is probably the most used of all Japanese verbs.

The second Irregular verb is kuru (to come).

ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)English Meaning
ใ™ใ‚‹ใ™ใ‚‹suru (to do)
ใ—ใ—shiBase 1
ใ—ใ—shiBase 2
ใ™ใ‚‹ใ™ใ‚‹suruBase 3
ใ™ใ‚Œใ™ใ‚ŒsureBase 4
ใ—ใ‚ˆใ†ใ—ใ‚ˆใ†shiyouBase 5
ใ—ใฆใ—ใฆshiteBase "te"
ใ—ใŸใ—ใŸshitaBase "ta"

The functions for these bases are the same as for the Godan verbs except that Base 4 can only be used as the "if verb".

The rude command form is shiro.

ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)English Meaning
ๆฅใ‚‹ใใ‚‹kuru (to come)
ๆฅใ“koBase 1
ๆฅใkiBase 2
ๆฅใ‚‹ใใ‚‹kuruBase 3
ๆฅใ‚Œใใ‚ŒkureBase 4
ๆฅใ‚ˆใ†ใ“ใ‚ˆใ†koyouBase 5
ๆฅใฆใใฆkiteBase "te"
ๆฅใŸใใŸkitaBase "ta"

The functions for these bases are the same as for the Godan verbs except that Base 4 can only be used as the "if verb".

The rude command form is koi and really should only be used on animals.

Godan verbs that sound like Ichidan verbs

ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji(English Letters)English meaning
่ตฐใ‚‹ใฏใ—ใ‚‹hashiruto run
่ฆใ‚‹ใ„ใ‚‹iruto need
ๅ…ฅใ‚‹ใฏใ„ใ‚‹hairuto enter
็Ÿฅใ‚‹ใ—ใ‚‹shiruto know
ๅˆ‡ใ‚‹ใใ‚‹kiruto cut
่ฟ”ใ‚‹ใ‹ใˆใ‚‹kaeruto return
ๅธฐใ‚‹ใ‹ใˆใ‚‹kaeruto return home
ๆป‘ใ‚‹ใ™ในใ‚‹suberuto slip, slide
่นดใ‚‹ใ‘ใ‚‹keruto kick

Japanese ichidan verb conjugations

ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)Verb Base
ใ„ใ‚‹ใ„ใ‚‹iru (to exist (animate), to be somewhere)
ใ„ใ„iBase 1
ใ„ใ„iBase 2
ใ„ใ‚‹ใ„ใ‚‹iruBase 3
ใ„ใ‚Œใ„ใ‚ŒireBase 4
ใ„ใ‚ˆใ†ใ„ใ‚ˆใ†iyouBase 5
ใ„ใฆใ„ใฆiteBase "te"
ใ„ใŸใ„ใŸitaBase "ta"
ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)Verb Base
่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ใฟใ‚‹miru (to see)
่ฆ‹ใฟmiBase 1
่ฆ‹ใฟmiBase 2
่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ใฟใ‚‹miruBase 3
่ฆ‹ใ‚Œใฟใ‚ŒmireBase 4
่ฆ‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใฟใ‚ˆใ†miyouBase 5
่ฆ‹ใฆใฟใฆmiteBase "te"
่ฆ‹ใŸใฟใŸmitaBase "ta"
ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)Verb Base
ๅฏใ‚‹ใญใ‚‹neru (to sleep)
ๅฏใญneBase 1
ๅฏใญneBase 2
ๅฏใ‚‹ใญใ‚‹neruBase 3
ๅฏใ‚Œใญใ‚ŒnereBase 4
ๅฏใ‚ˆใ†ใญใ‚ˆใ†neyouBase 5
ๅฏใฆใญใฆneteBase "te"
ๅฏใŸใญใŸnetaBase "ta"
ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)Verb Base
็€ใ‚‹ใใ‚‹kiru (to wear, put on)
็€ใkiBase 1
็€ใkiBase 2
็€ใ‚‹ใใ‚‹kiruBase 3
็€ใ‚Œใใ‚ŒkireBase 4
็€ใ‚ˆใ†ใใ‚ˆใ†kiyouBase 5
็€ใฆใใฆkiteBase "te"
็€ใŸใใŸkitaBase "ta"
ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)Verb Base
ๅ‡บๆฅใ‚‹ใงใใ‚‹dekiru (can do)
ๅ‡บๆฅใงใdekiBase 1
ๅ‡บๆฅใงใdekiBase 2
ๅ‡บๆฅใ‚‹ใงใใ‚‹dekiruBase 3
ๅ‡บๆฅใ‚Œใงใใ‚ŒdekireBase 4
ๅ‡บๆฅใ‚ˆใ†ใงใใ‚ˆใ†dekiyouBase 5
ๅ‡บๆฅใฆใงใใฆdekiteBase "te"
ๅ‡บๆฅใŸใงใใŸdekitaBase "ta"
ๆผขๅญ— - Kanjiใฒใ‚‰ใŒใช - HiraganaRomaji (English Letters)Verb Base
่ฆšใˆใ‚‹ใŠใผใˆใ‚‹oboeru (to remember)
่ฆšใˆใŠใผใˆoboeBase 1
่ฆšใˆใŠใผใˆoboeBase 2
่ฆšใˆใ‚‹ใŠใผใˆใ‚‹oboeruBase 3
่ฆšใˆใ‚ŒใŠใผใˆใ‚ŒoboereBase 4
่ฆšใˆใ‚ˆใ†ใŠใผใˆใ‚ˆใ†oboeyouBase 5
่ฆšใˆใฆใŠใผใˆใฆoboeteBase "te"
่ฆšใˆใŸใŠใผใˆใŸoboetaBase "ta"

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